Yigit Ozkan, B., Spruit, M. (2019), "Cybersecurity Standardisation for SMEs: The Stakeholders' Perspectives and a Research Agenda", International Journal of Standardization Research (IJSR), 17(2), 1-25.

There are various challenges regarding the development and use of cybersecurity standards for SMEs. In particular, SMEs need guidance in interpreting and implementing cybersecurity practices and adopting the standards to their specific needs. As an empirical study, the workshop Cybersecurity Standards: What Impacts and Gaps for SMEs was co-organized by the StandICT.eu and SMESEC Horizon 2020 projects with the aim of identifying cybersecurity standardisation needs and gaps for SMEs. The workshop participants were from key stakeholder groups that include policymakers, standards developing organisations, SME alliances, and cybersecurity organisations. This paper highlights the key discussions and outcomes of the workshop and presents the themes, current initiatives, and plans towards cybersecurity standardisation for SMEs. The findings from the workshop and multivocal literature searches were used to formulate an agenda for future research.

Alireza Shojaifar, Samuel A. Fricker, Martin Gwerder. "Automating the Communication of Cybersecurity Knowledge: Multi-Case Study." 13th World Conference on Information Security Education (WISE2020), Maribor, Slovenia.

Cybersecurity is essential for the protection of companies against cyber threats. Traditionally, cybersecurity experts assess and improve a company's capabilities. However, many small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) consider such services not to be affordable. We explore an alternative do-it-yourself (DIY) approach to bringing cybersecurity to SMBs. Our method and tool, CYSEC, implements the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to guide and motivate SMBs to adopt good cybersecurity practices. CYSEC uses assessment questions and recommendations to communicate cybersecurity knowledge to the enduser SMBs and encourage self-motivated change.
In this paper, the operationalisation of SDT in CYSEC is presented and the results of a multi-case study shown that offer insight into how SMBs adopted cybersecurity practices with CYSEC. Effective automated cybersecurity communication depended on the SMB's hands-on skills, tools adaptedness, and the users' willingness to documenting confidential information. The SMBs wanted to learn in simple, incremental steps, allowing them to understand what they do. An SMB's motivation to improve security depended on the fitness of assessment questions and recommendations with the SMB's business model and IT infrastructure. The results of this study indicate that automated counselling can help many SMBs in security adoption.

Yigit Ozkan, B., Spruit, M., Wondolleck, R. and Burriel Coll, V. (2019), "Modelling adaptive information security for SMEs in a cluster", Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.

Purpose – This paper presents a method for adapting an Information Security Focus Area Maturity (ISFAM) model to the organizational characteristics (OCs) of a small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) cluster. The purpose of this paper is to provide SMEs with a tailored maturity model enabling them to capture and improve their information security capabilities.
Design/methodology/approach – Design Science Research was followed to design and evaluate the method as a design artifact.
Findings – The method has successfully been used to adapt the ISFAM model to a group of SMEs within a regional cluster resulting in a model that is aligned with the OCs of the cluster. Areas for further investigation and improvements were identified.
Research limitations/implications – The study is based on applying the proposed method for the SMEs active in the transport, logistics and packaging sector in the Port of Rotterdam. Future research can focus on different sectors and regions. The method can be used for adapting other focus area maturity models.
Practical implications – The resulting adapted maturity model can facilitate the creation and further development of a base of common or shared knowledge in the cluster. The adapted maturity model can cut the cost of over implementation of information security capabilities for the SMEs with scarce resources.
Originality/value – The resulting adapted maturity model can facilitate the creation and further development of a base of common or shared knowledge in the cluster. The adapted maturity model can cut the cost of over implementation of information security capabilities for the SMEs with scarce resources.

Hamza Baqa, Nguyen B. Truong, Noel Crespi, Gyu Myoung Lee, Franck Le Gall. "Semantic Smart Contracts for Blockchain-based Services in the Internet of Things." 18th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA 2019), Cambridge, MA USA.

The emerging Blockchain (BC) and Distributed Ledger technologies have come to impact a variety of domains, from capital market sectors to digital asset management in the Internet of Things (IoT). As a result, more and more BC-based decentralized applications for numerous cross-domain services have been developed. These applications implement specialized decentralized computer programs called Smart Contracts (SCs) which are deployed into BC frameworks. Although these SCs are open ato public, it is challenging to discover and utilize such SCs for a wide range of usages from both systems and end-users because such SCs are already compiled in form of byte-codes without any associated meta-data.
This motivates us to propose a solution called Semantic SC (SSC) which integrates RESTful semantic web technologies in SCs, deployed on the Ethereum Blockchain platform, for indexing, browsing and annotating such SCs. The solution also exposes the relevant distributed ledgers as Linked Data for enhancing the discovery capability. To achieve this goal, the OWL-S service ontology is extended by incorporating some domain specific terminologies, which are used in the development of the proposed SSCs. As a result, SSC can be utilized to enrich queries for a domain-specific terms across multiple distributed ledgers, which greatly increases the discovery capability of decentralized IoT applications and services. Contribution in standardization is also discussed. We believe that our research work takes the first steps towards connecting BC-based decentralized services with semantic web services in order to provide better IoT ecosystems.

Christos Tselios, George Tsolis, Manos Athanatos. "A comprehensive technical survey of contemporary cybersecurity products and solutions." Second International Workshop, IOSec 2019, Luxembourg.

As the complexity of applications and software frameworks increases, cybersecurity becomes more challenging. The potential attack surface keeps expanding while each product has its own peculiarities and requirements leading to tailor-made solutions per case. These are the primary reasons which render security solutions expensive, highly complex and with significant deployment delay. This technical survey intends to reveal the pillars of today's cybersecurity market, as well as identify emerging trends, key players and functional aspects. Such an insight will allow all interested parties to optimize the design process of a contemporary and future-proof cybersecurity framework for end-to-end protection.

Alireza Shojaifar. "SMEs Confidentiality Issues and Adoption of Good Cybersecurity Practices." IFIP International Summer School on Privacy and Identity Management, 2019, Switzerland.

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are considered more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. However, and based on SMEs' characteristics, they do not adopt good cybersecurity practices. To address the SMEs' security adoption problem, we are designing a do-it-yourself (DIY) security assessment and capability improvement method, CYSEC. In the first validation of CYSEC, we conducted a multi-case study in four SMEs. We observed that confidentiality concerns could influence users' decisions to provide CYSEC with relevant and accurate security information. The lack of precise information may impact our DIY assessment method to provide accurate recommendations. In this paper, we explore the importance of dynamic consent and its effect on SMEs' trust perception and sharing information. We discuss the lack of trust perception may be addressed by applying dynamic consent. Finally, we describe the results of three interviews with SMEs and present how the new way of communication in CYSEC can help us to understand better SMEs' attitudes towards sharing information.

Francesco Marcantoni, Michalis Diamantaris, Sotiris Ioannidis, Jason Polakis. "A Large-scale Study on the Risks of the HTML5 WebAPI for Mobile Sensor-based Attacks." In Proceedings of The World Wide Web Conference, San Francisco, USA, May 2019

Smartphone sensors can be leveraged by malicious apps for a plethora of different attacks, which can also be deployed by malicious websites through the HTML5 WebAPI. In this paper we provide a comprehensive evaluation of the multifaceted threat that mobile web browsing poses to users, by conducting a large-scale study of mobile-specific HTML5 WebAPI calls used in the wild. We build a novel testing infrastructure consisting of actual smartphones on top of a dynamic Android app analysis framework, allowing us to conduct an end-to-end exploration. Our study reveals the extent to which websites are actively leveraging the WebAPI for collecting sensor data, with 2.89% of websites accessing at least one mobile sensor. To provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential risks of this emerging practice, we create a taxonomy of sensor-based attacks from prior studies, and present an in-depth analysis by framing our collected data within that taxonomy. We find that 1.63% of websites could carry out at least one of those attacks. Our findings emphasize the need for a standardized policy across browsers and the ability for users to control what sensor data each website can access.

Michalis Diamantaris, Elias P. Papadopoulos, Evangelos P. Markatos, Sotiris Ioannidis, Jason Polakis. "REAPER: Real-time App Analysis for Augmenting the Android Permission System." ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy (CODASPY), March 2019, Dallas, TX, USA

Android’s app ecosystem relies heavily on third-party libraries as they facilitate code development and provide a steady stream of revenue for developers. However, while Android has moved towards a more fine-grained run time permission system, users currently lack the required resources for deciding whether a specific permission request is actually intended for the app itself or is requested by possibly dangerous third-party libraries.

In this paper we present Reaper, a novel dynamic analysis system that traces the permissions requested by apps in real time and distinguishes those requested by the app’s core functionality from those requested by third-party libraries linked with the app. We implement a sophisticated UI automator and conduct an extensive evaluation of our system’s performance and find that Reaper introduces negligible overhead, rendering it suitable both for end users (by integrating it in the OS) and for deployment as part of an official app vetting process.

Our study on over 5K popular apps demonstrates the large extent to which personally identifiable information is being accessed by libraries and highlights the privacy risks that users face. We find that an impressive 65% of the permissions requested do not originate from the core app but are issued by linked third-party libraries, 37.3% of which are used for functionality related to ads, tracking, and analytics. Overall, Reaper enhances the functionality of Android’s run time permission model without requiring OS or app modifications, and provides the necessary contextual information that can enable users to selectively deny permissions that are not part of an app’s core functionality.

Kostas Drakonakis, Panagiotis Ilia, Sotiris Ioannidis, Jason Polakis. "Please Forget Where I Was Last Summer: The Privacy Risks of Public Location (Meta)Data." NDSS 2019, San Diego, CA, USA

The exposure of location data constitutes a significant privacy risk to users as it can lead to de-anonymization, the inference of sensitive information, and even physical threats. In this paper we present LPAuditor, a tool that conducts a comprehensive evaluation of the privacy loss caused by publicly available location metadata. First, we demonstrate how our system can pinpoint users’ key locations at an unprecedented granularity by identifying their actual postal addresses. Our experimental evaluation on Twitter data highlights the effectiveness of our techniques which outperform prior approaches by 18.9%-91.6% for homes and 8.7%-21.8% for workplaces. Next we present a novel exploration of automated private information inference that uncovers “sensitive” locations that users have visited (pertaining to health, religion, and sex/nightlife). We find that location metadata can provide additional context to tweets and thus lead to the exposure of private information that might not match the users’ intentions.

We further explore the mismatch between user actions and information exposure and find that older versions of the official Twitter apps follow a privacy-invasive policy of including precise GPS coordinates in the metadata of tweets that users have geotagged at a coarse-grained level (e.g., city). The implications of this exposure are further exacerbated by our finding that users are considerably privacy-cautious in regards to exposing precise location data. When users can explicitly select what location data is published, there is a 94.6% reduction in tweets with GPS coordinates. As part of current efforts to give users more control over their data, LPAuditor can be adopted by major services and offered as an auditing tool that informs users about sensitive information they (indirectly) expose through location metadata.

Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Giorgos Vasiliadis, Panagiotis Ilia, Sotiris Ioannidis, Michalis Polychronakis, Evangelos P. Markatos. "Master of Web Puppets: Abusing Web Browsers for Persistent and Stealthy Computation." NDSS 2019, San Diego, CA, USA

The proliferation of web applications has essentially transformed modern browsers into small but powerful operating systems. Upon visiting a website, user devices run implicitly trusted script code, the execution of which is confined within the browser to prevent any interference with the user’s system. Recent JavaScript APIs, however, provide advanced capabilities that not only enable feature-rich web applications, but also allow attackers to perform malicious operations despite the confined nature of JavaScript code execution.

In this paper, we demonstrate the powerful capabilities that modern browser APIs provide to attackers by presenting MarioNet: a framework that allows a remote malicious entity to control a visitor’s browser and abuse its resources for unwanted computation or harmful operations, such as cryptocurrency mining, password-cracking, and DDoS. MarioNet relies solely on already available HTML5 APIs, without requiring the installation of any additional software. In contrast to previous browserbased botnets, the persistence and stealthiness characteristics of MarioNet allow the malicious computations to continue in the background of the browser even after the user closes the window or tab of the initial malicious website. We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of a prototype system, MarioNet, that is compatible with all major browsers, and discuss potential defense strategies to counter the threat of such persistent inbrowser attacks. Our main goal is to raise awareness regarding this new class of attacks, and inform the design of future browser APIs so that they provide a more secure client-side environment for web applications.

Fady Copty, Francisco Hernandez, Dov Murik, Olmo Rayón. "Shakedown: compiler-based moving target protection for Return Oriented Programing attacks on an industrial IoT device." arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.02090, 2018

Cybercriminals use Return Oriented Programming techniques to attack systems and IoT devices. While defenses have been developed, not all of them are applicable to constrained devices. We present Shakedown, which is a compile-time randomizing build tool which creates several versions of the binary, each with a distinct memory layout. An attack developed against one device will not work on another device which has a different memory layout. We tested Shakedown on an industrial IoT device and shown that its normal functionality remained intact while an exploit was blocked.

Yigit Ozkan,B., Spruit,M. "Assessing and Improving Cybersecurity Maturity for SMEs: Standardization aspects." 1st SMESEC Workshop, September 14, 2018.

SMEs constitute a very large part of the economy in every country, and they play an important role in economic growth and social development. SMEs are frequent targets of cybersecurity attacks similar to large enterprises. However, unlike large enterprises, SMEs mostly have limited capabilities regarding cybersecurity practices. Given the increasing cybersecurity risks and the large impact that the risks may bring to the SMEs, assessing and improving the cybersecurity capabilities is crucial for SMEs for sustainability.

This research aims to provide an approach for the SMEs for assessing and improving their cybersecurity capabilities by integrating key elements from existing industry standards.

Yigit Ozkan,B., Spruit,M. "A Questionnaire Model for Cybersecurity Maturity Assessment for Critical Infrastructures." Information and Operational Technology Security Systems. First International Workshop, IOSec 2018, CIPSEC Project. Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

Critical infrastructures are important assets for everyday life and well-being of the people. People can be affected dramatically if critical infrastructures are vulnerable and not protected against various threats. Given the increasing cybersecurity risks and the large impact that these risks may bring to the critical infrastructures, assessing and improving the cybersecurity capabilities of the service providers and the administrators is crucial for sustainability.

This research aims to provide a questionnaire model for assessing and improving cybersecurity capabilities based on industry standards. Another aim of this research is to provide service providers and the administrators of the critical infrastructures personalized guidance and an implementation plan for cybersecurity capability improvement.

Fady Copty, Andre Kassis, Sharon Keidar-Barner, Dov Murik. “Deep Ahead-of-Threat Virtual Patching.” International Workshop on Information and Operational Technology Security Systems, Springer, Cham, 2018

Many applications have security vulnerabilities that can be exploited. It is practically impossible to find all of them due to the NP-complete nature of the testing problem. Security solutions provide defenses against these attacks through continuous application testing, fast-patching of vulnerabilities, automatic deployment of patches, and virtual patching detection techniques deployed in network and endpoint security tools. These techniques are limited by the need to find vulnerabilities before the ‘black hats’. We propose an innovative technique to virtually patch vulnerabilities before they are found. We leverage testing techniques for supervised-learning data generation, and show how artificial intelligence techniques can use this data to create predictive deep neural-network models that read an application’s input and predict in real time whether it is a potential malicious input. We set up an ahead-of-threat experiment in which we generated data on old versions of an application, and then evaluated the predictive model accuracy on vulnerabilities found years later. Our experiments show ahead-of-threat detection on LibXML2 and LibTIFF vulnerabilities with 91.3% and 93.7% accuracy, respectively. We expect to continue work on this field of research and provide ahead-of-threat virtual patching for more libraries. Success in this research can change the current state of endless racing after application vulnerabilities and put the defenders one step ahead of the attackers.

Francisc Moldovan, Ciprian Oprişa. "A Framework for Threats Analysis Using Software-Defined Networking." 2018 IEEE 14th International Conference on Intelligent Computer Communication and Processing (ICCP). IEEE, 2018

The ability to analyze network threats is very important in security research. Traditional approaches, involving sandboxing technology are limited to simulating a single host, missing local network attacks. This issue is addressed by designing a threat analysis framework that uses software-defined networking for simulating arbitrary networks. The presented system offers flexibility, allowing a security researcher to define a virtual network that is able to capture malicious actions and to be restored to the initial state afterwards. Both the framework design and common usage scenarios are described. By providing this framework, we aim to ease the analysis effort in combating cyberthreats.

Jose Francisco Ruiz, Fady Copty, Christos Tselios. "SMESEC: A Cybersecurity framework to Protect, Enhance and Educate SMEs." ERCIM News online edition, July 2018,

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a decisive role in EU economy; however, they are attractive targets for cyber-attacks. Since they have specific characteristics, less security, and fewer resources for cybersecurity measures than large companies.

The article describes the SMESEC project. SMESEC develops a tailor-made cybersecurity framework for SMEs which considers both technical solutions and human-organisational aspects. Regarding SMESEC use-case partners’ requirements and feedback, it provides a state-of-the-art cybersecurity framework, cost-effective solutions and cybersecurity awareness and training courses. In the development phase, we have considered the great importance of usability and automation, cyber situational awareness and control for end-users, human factors in the design process, and current best practices and standards related to SMEs. This framework takes account of the use-case partner’s cybersecurity requirements through an innovative process to integrate various solutions working in an orchestral way. Also, the future innovative approaches to SMESEC’s tools are prioritized based on increasing simplicity of security tools, increasing protection level, cost-effectiveness, supporting training and awareness, and rising interconnection.

SMESEC intends to be a holistic security framework due to growth in the number of SMEs willing to tackle their cyber-security issues. Thus, the SMESEC principal objectives are: developing an automated cybersecurity assessment engine, offering relevant feedback to SMEs regarding their cybersecurity behaviour and vulnerabilities, and aligning SMESEC innovations with international links and, in turn, providing inexpensive and effective security recommendations.

Apostolos P. Fournaris, Konstantinos Lampropoulos, Odysseas Koufopavlou. "End Node Security and Trust vulnerabilities in the Smart City Infrastructure." 5th International Conference of Engineering Against Failure (ICEAF V), June 2018, Chios Island, Greece

As cities gradually introduce intelligence in their core services and infrastructure thus becoming “smart cities”, they are deploying new Information Technology devices in the urban grid that are interconnected to a broad network. The main focus of widely implemented smart cities’ services was the operation of sensors and smart devices across city areas that need low energy consumption and high connectivity. However, as 5G technologies are gradually been adopted in the smart city infrastructure thus solving that problem, the fundamental issue of addressing security becomes dominant.

While latest network topologies and standards include security functions thus giving an illusion of security, there is little focus on the fact that many smart city end nodes cannot realize all security specifications without additional help.

In this paper, we discuss briefly smart city security issues and focus on problem and security requirement that need to be addressed in the smart city end nodes, the sensors, and actuators deployed within the city’s grid. In this paper, attacks that cannot be thwarted by traditional cybersecurity solutions are discussed and countermeasures based on hardware are suggested in order to achieve a high level of trust. Also, the danger of microarchitectural and side channel attacks on these devices is highlighted and protection approaches are discussed.

Dan Domniţa, Ciprian Oprişa. "A genetic algorithm for obtaining memory constrained near-perfect hashing." 2018 IEEE International Conference on Automation, Quality and Testing, Robotics (AQTR). IEEE, 2018

The problem of fast items retrieval from a fixed collection is often encountered in most computer science areas, from operating system components to databases and user interfaces. We present an approach based on hash tables that focuses on both minimizing the number of comparisons performed during the search and minimizing the total collection size. The standard open-addressing double-hashing approach is improved with a non-linear transformation that can be parametrized in order to ensure a uniform distribution of the data in the hash table. The optimal parameter is determined using a genetic algorithm. The paperresults showthat near-perfecthashing isfaster thanbinary search, yet uses less memory than perfect hashing, being a good choice for memory-constrained applications where search time is also critical.

Alireza Shojaifar, Samuel A. Fricker, Martin Gwerder. “Elicitation of SME Requirements for Cybersecurity Solutions by Studying Adherence to Recommendations.” Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (RESFQ 2018), Utrecht, Netherlands

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) have become the weak spot of our economy for cyber attacks. These companies are large in number and often do not have the controls in place to prevent successful attacks, respectively are not prepared to systematically manage their cybersecurity capabilities. One of the reasons for why many SME do not adopt cybersecurity is that developers of cybersecurity solutions understand little the SME context and the requirements for successful use of these solutions.

We elicit requirements by studying how cybersecurity experts provide advice to SME. The experts’ recommendations offer insights into what important capabilities of the solution are and how these capabilities ought to be used for mitigating cybersecurity threats. The adoption of a recommendation hints at a correct match of the solution, hence successful consideration of requirements. Abandoned recommendations point to a misalignment that can be used as a source to inquire missed requirements. Re-occurrence of adoption or abandonment decisions corroborate the presence of requirements. This poster describes the challenges of SME regarding cybersecurity and introduces our proposed approach to elicit requirements for cybersecurity solutions. The poster describes CYSEC, our tool used to capture cybersecurity advice and help to scale cybersecurity requirements elicitation to a large number of participating SME. We conclude by outlining the planned research to develop and validate CYSEC.

Giorgos Tsirantonakis, Panagiotis Ilia, Sotiris Ioannidis, Elias Athanasopoulos, Michalis Polychronakis. “A Large-scale Analysis of Content Modification by Open HTTP Proxies.” In Proceedings of the Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS '18), February 2018, San Diego, CA, USA

Giorgos Tsirantonakis, Panagiotis Ilia, Sotiris Ioannidis, Elias Athanasopoulos, Michalis Polychronakis. “A Large-scale Analysis of Content Modification by Open HTTP Proxies.” Cybersecurity and Privacy (CySeP), June 2018, Stockholm, Sweden

In this paper, we present the results of a large-scale analysis of open HTTP proxies, focusing on determining the extent to which user traffic is manipulated while being relayed. We have designed a methodology for detecting proxies that, instead of passively relaying traffic, actively modify the relayed content. Beyond simple detection, our framework is capable of macroscopically attributing certain traffic modifications at the network level to well-defined malicious actions, such as ad injection, user fingerprinting, and redirection to malware landing pages.

Our study reveals the true incentives of many of the publicly available web proxies. Our findings raise several concerns, as we uncover multiple cases where users can be severely affected by connecting to an open proxy. As a step towards protecting users against unwanted content modification, we built a service that leverages our methodology to collect and probe public proxies automatically, and generates a list of safe proxies that do not perform any content modification, on a daily basis.